paintings 1 2 3 3 4 5 a b c -
- A B . . . . . . . new
list of paintings ...
titles of ...
paintings not created yet ...
Felice Mastrangelo (1907-1988)
2012, oil on canvas, 22×18 cm
Felice Mastrangelo (1907-1988)
Masculine Penetrating - Ezra Pound
English and French Feminist Approaches to Pound's Poetics (Part 1)
English and French Feminist Approaches to Pound's Poetics (Part 2)
Geun Young Jang
English and French Feminist Approaches to Pound's Poetics (Part 3)*
The father is dead, yet, for Pound, the past and its language is of much importance, for he can identify himself with the phallic signifier only through the fusion of the past and the present. However, the present is the unpoetic and feminized age In the line, "For an old bitch gone in the teeth," of Hugh Selwyn Mauberley, Pound describes that the age demanded" is the abominable and decrepit feminine (HSM 176). Here, as in the pejorative term, an old bitch representing a botched civilization, which takes young artists' life, is sexed as female. Pound's abhorrence to the old woman is also, in particular, manifested in his article, "Suffragettes." Even though he proclaims that "their [women's] demand is irrevocably just," in this case Pound paradoxically notes that "Politics is unfit for men," and that "it may be good enough for women, we doubt it" (369, 370). Pound concludes, thus, "The Male mind does not want a state run by women or by 'old women'" (370), and one of the old women is the "old bitch," "a botched civilization." Here, as Bruce Clarke defined, this crone figure, "an old bitch gone in the teeth," is similar to "woman transformed by fertility and motherhood, metamorphosed by natural commerce with an aging and procreating body, and then, thrown away, rejected from the house" (Allegories 146). Then, in his endnote, Clarke details this logic of the crone as the abject mother who "shares the lost landscape of metamorphic allegory with the phallic mother" (Allegories 177 n. 31). However, in this context, even though, by using the very pejorative term, indicating some victimization, "an old bitch," seems, rather than the abject mother, to imply the omnipotent, phallic mother. In The Freudian Mystique, Samual Slipp defines the "omnipotent preoedipal mother" as follows
To cope with its helplessness in very early childhood, the infant needs to empower the mother by projecting a fantasy of omnipotence and merging with her. We could hypothesize that this merged symbiotic relationship with the preoedipal mother, which occurs during each person's childhood, was externalized onto the goddess in early societies to provide a sense of security. Like the omnipotent preoedipal mother, the great mother goddess was perceived as all powerful over life and death (29-30).
Ezra Pound, arrested.
For Lacanian psychoanalysis, "the imaginary" means to describe "the preoedipal identification of the infant with its mirror image", at this stage in its development, the child is neither feminine nor masculine (Weedon 51). The child's helpless dependence on its mother at the preoedipal stage without distinct sexual identifications renders the omnipotent mother as "the great mother goddess perceived as all powerful over life and death." In Pound's poetics, the omnipotent phallic mother is abhortent, yet persistently present in that he cannot break from the tie with the mother, and. in this instance, the mother—perhaps preoedipal—can represent his softness rooted in the Nineties In addition, the blurring of gender is also occasioned with the preoedipal mother, for in the preoedipal mother-child dyad gender identifications cannot occur. The Eleusinian myth—which seems dominant in later Cantos—may indicate Pound's inability to enter into the symbolic in terms reminiscent of Demeter, who can represent the omnipotent preoedipal mother; she brings Fall and Winter which symbolize the spiritual death and seems to have the power over life and death.
Ezra Pound, Prolegomena 1: How to Read, Toulon , 1932.
Perhaps, Pound's masks are devices for escaping the reign of the phallic and hostile mother. However, these masks are definitely indicating the locus of the in between of the subject and the object. Of masks, young Pound writes:
Therefore, asking you to pardon what is yet imperfect, looking rather to what I have striven to express than to the technicalities and minutiae of that expression, I give you that part of me which is most real, fartherest distilled most removed from the transient personality, (Persona, a mask), most nearly related to things that more [sic] permanent than this smoke wraith the earth ("Letters to 'Viola Baxter Jordan" 109).
Quoting this paragraph, Maud Ellmann notes that "Pound begins to advocate impersonality as early as 1907, at the same time that he clings to a subjectivist aesthetic (139) The poetics of the in-between of subjectivity and objectivity may be, then, said to be presented in the use of the persona While the persona or mask can be a method of impersonality to get objectivity, at the same time, this masquerade is, for Pound, surely the expression of the inner self A sincere expression of the self, the mask, is implicating the myth as strange, unfamiliar, and, moreover, hostile:
These tales of old disguisings are they not
myths of souls that found themselves among
Unwonted folk that spake an hostile tongue.
Some soul from all the rest who'd not forget
The star-span acres of a former lot
Where boundless mid the clouds his course he swung.
Or carnate with his elder brothers sung
Ere ballad-makers lisped of Camelot?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All they that with strange sadness in their eyes
Ponder in silence o'er earth's queynt devyse? ("Masks," CEP 34)
In particular, on the first three lines, Ellmann comments that "Pound speculates that myths like these evolved as masks to screen their own creators" (142). The masks— myths—as screens or disguisings are, thus, alienated, split from their own creator, and they are intricate forms of "queynt devyse." With "strange sadness," Pound's mythic metamorphoses of personae show the distance between masks and their own creator. Originally, as Donald Davie says, the mask is a Yeatsian term (82). Such critics as Christ and Marianne Korn consider Pound's masks as deriving from his Romanticism Christ argues that the "mask serves both Pound and Yeats as a defense against those limitations which they felt the age placed upon the voice and the tradition to which the artist could lay claim" (41). In other words, as a method to escape from the hostile, limited world, personae and the search for masks provide the creator with an unbounded, unlimited possibility of going beyond through multiplicity and fluidities of identities in terms of wearing masks. Consistent with Christ, Korn places Pound in the continuity of Romantic tradition from Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Shelly, for Pound’s Masks "shows” a portrait of the artist as a social outcast, alienated by his very nature from the very world". Moreover, Korn says that young Pound's attitude is rather a romantic Bohemian's (14) Korn writes:
It is this kind of statement that has led critics to comment on the passivity of the poetic experience which is described in these early years, as opposed to an energetic, form-making imagination which becomes central to Vorticist theory five years later. (15)
According to Korn, Pound's experiment with the masks seems to be passive, but opposed to the energy-seeking poetics of Vorticist theory. While we can see later Pound's poetics as seeking for hardness, in this respect, early Pound's poetics of passivity might be seen as the poetics of softness in terms of the Decadent.
In "Und Drang," the last lines of section 'VIII, "The Flame," Pound describes the self as eluding a fixed identity:
If I have merged my soul, or utterly
Am solved and bound in, through aught here on earth.
There canst thou find me, 0 thou anxious thou.
Who call'st about my gates for some lost me;
I say my soul flowed back, became translucent.
Search not my lips, O Love, let go my hands.
This thing that moves as man is no more mortal
If thou hast seen that mirror of all moments,
That glass to all things that o'ershadow it
Call not that mirror me, for I have slipped
Your grasp, I have eluded. (CEP 172)
Ellmann notes, "Rather than endangering the self. Pound revels in its gateway, as it its slippage were the source of its resilience, "and” It seems that he denies the self only to restore it elsewhere, in another guise" (143) Ellmann also sees Pound's self-denial or annihilation in his use of persona as a method to get his resilience to become a vehicle for his variable and multiple identifications with "you" the mythical and past masculine heroes; self-annihilation becomes the restoration of the elastic self In Pound's "Histrion," this self becomes a receptacle or receptive vehicle.
No man hath dared to write this thing as yet.
And yet I know, how that the souls of all men great
At times pass through us.
And we are melted into them, and are not
Save reflexions of their souls.
Thus am I Dante for a space and am
One Fran9ois Villon, ballad-lord and thief
Or am such holy ones I may not write.
Lest blasphemy be writ against my name;
This for an instant and the flame is gone.
'Tis as in midmost us there glows a sphere
Translucent, molten gold, that is the "F'
And into this some form projects itself
Christus, or John, or eke the Florentine;
And as the clear space is not if a form's
So cease we from all being for the time.
And these, the Masters of the Soul, live on. (71)
The Eyes Turn Topaz
The mirror almost always serves to reduce us to a pure exteriority -of a very particular kind. It functions as a possible way to constitute screens between the other and myself In a way quite different from the mucous membranes of the skin that serve as living, porous, fluid media to achieve communion as well as difference, the mirror is a frozen—and polemical—weapon to keep us apart. (Irigaray, Sexes and Genealogies 65)
As I have discussed earlier, the light, that is, the gaze is closely related to the traditional metaphoric use of mirroring. While the mirror can mean the patriarchal frame as well as the subversive, transgressive tool through the miming, the light, the gaze seems to be associated with the Image through its rigorous visual immediacy. As Elizabeth Hirsh has indicated, thus, the Image is in close connection with the relation of the eye and I, "specularization" and "speculation" (141-3). According to Hirsh the "image" and the "imagery" evokes imaginative perception or sensation—a "synedoche which itself implies the subordination of the sensory manifold under hegemony of a single eye"; the word. Image, by its bearing of a capital "I." is coined by, that famous egotist, Ezra Pound, and marked by the poetic father's seal (143).
In Phenomenology of Perception, Merleau-Ponty says, "to look at an object is to inhabit it, and from this habitation to grasp all things in terms of the aspect which they present to it" (68). Moreover, this relation between the viewer and the object is that of the master and the slave, the self and the other: "Shame and immodesty, then, take their place in a dialectic of the self and the other which is that of master and slave: in so far as I have a body, I may be reduced to the status of an object beneath the gaze of another person, and no longer count as a person for him, or else 1 may become his master and. in my turn, look at him« (Merleau-Ponty 167). At this point, Butler argues Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception as an expression of sexual ideology while she notes the significance of the "prevalence of visual metaphors in Merleau-Ponty's descriptions of normal sexuality", "Indeed, it sometimes appears as if sexuality itself were reduced to the erotics of the gaze" ("Sexual Ideology" 93) Further, Butler argues, "the body" Merleau-Ponty perceives is female, and the "normal subject" is male ("Sexual Ideology" 93) Butler writes:
Although Merleau-Ponty does not equate the master with the male body or the slave with the female body, he does tend, as we have seen, to identify the female body with a sexual schema of a decontextualized and fragmented body. Read in light of Simone de Beauvoir's later claim in The Second Sex, that women are culturally constructed as the Other, reduced to their bodies and, further, to their sex, to Merleau-Ponty's description of the "metaphysical" structure of bodily existence appears to encode and reify that specific cultural dynamic of heterosexual relations. ("Sexual Ideology "9")
Woman as the other, the body, is the reified object, matter, and this binary opposite of form and matter originates with Aristotle. Irigaray criticizes Plato's form/matter distinction, this binary opposition and the exclusion of the feminine matter from Western metaphysical discourse in, "Plato's Hysteria" in Speculum. According to Butler' reading of Merleau-Ponty and Irigaray, Merleau-Ponty's notion of sexuality and the body, though fragmented and reified, is the feminine, not the masculine. Here, borrowing Irigaray's notion of materiality, Butler is making a distinction between matter and materiality
Inasmuch as a distinction between form and matter is offered within phallogocentrism, it is articulated through a further materiality In other words, every explicit distinction takes place in an inscriptional space that the distinction itself cannot accommodate. Matter as a site of inscription cannot be explicitly thematized. And this inscriptional site or space is, for Irigaray, a materiality that is not the same as the category of "matter" whose articulation it conditions and enables. It is this unthematizable materiality that Irigaray claims becomes the site, the repository, indeed, the receptacle of and for the feminine within a phallogocentric economy. (Bodies 38)
For Butler's reading of Irigaray's notion of matter, matter imposed upon by phallogocentrism is unthematizable. Rather, the materiality of the feminine becomes the site, "the repository," and "the receptacle" within a phallogocentric economy because matter is excluded from the discourse. In other words, not outside, but within phallogocentrism, Irigaray's materiality is one part of her miming strategy of becoming against and within phallogocentrism.
Considering man's eye as substitute for the penis, moreover, Irigaray states, man's eye will "be able to prospect woman's sexual parts, seek there new sources of profit" and, further, in this theoretical process, "man fetishizes (his) desire" (S 145), desire and the gaze is, thus, masculine in that through the masculine gaze femininity is fetishized. However, the male exploration of the feminine is vain because there still remains the realm of mystery, the dark continent of the feminine, the hysteric, that cannot be penetrated by the masculine, exploring gaze. In a proper example of Irigaray's logic for Pound, the gaze is certainly masculine, and this masculine penetrating, seeking, and exploring gaze reacts to the colour, sensuality: "Thus, if her colour / came against his gaze, / Tempered as if/ It were through a perfect glaze" ("The Age Demanded," HSM 184). In this instance, however, the feminine gaze shows an ambiguity or ambivalence, which may result in a blurting of gender:
Then like brook-water,
With a vacant gaze.
The English Rubaiyat was still born
In those days.
The thin, clear gaze, the same
Still darts out faun-like from the half-ruin'd face.
Questing and passive. . .
"Ah, poor Jenny's case" . . ("Yeux Glauques," HSM 176, Pound's Ellipses)
According to K. K. Ruthven, Jenny is probably an allusion to two women, the one in Rossetti's poem is a fired prostitute, "Jenny," and the other is the famous pre-Raphaelite beauty, Jane Burden (Mrs. William Morris) who was known to the group as "Janey" (135). In particular, Hugh Witemeyer notes that "the eyes of the Pre-Raphaelite muse symbolize both the strength and the limitation of Pre-Raphaelite vision" (184) Witemeyer adds: "But though this muse embodies the 'faun's flesh,' she lacks something of 'saint's vision.' Her gaze is 'clear,' but it is 'thin' and vacant', in Odyssean terms her gaze is 'questing' but 'passive ' Jenny—confused, enervated, and exploited by her society—becomes typical of the entire English tradition from which Mauberley descends" (184). This English tradition can be seen as Pre-Raphaelite or Decadent movement of the Nineties, which might belong to the soft; yet, this softness is curiously paralleled with hardness such as passive/questing and thin/clear. In the above-cited lines, I think, Jenny is a signifier of the feminine vision of the Pre-Raphaelite, Jenny's gaze can comprise both the "clear" masculine Odyssean questing and the "vacant" feminine passive, while her gaze becomes a fetishized part object. This feminine gaze also seems to be made up of water, liquid, not light, and, thus, inevitably to signify the nothing/excess of the fluids, because the fluids do not have motive force or form, however, this gaze is ambiguous, rather, heterogeneous, and can transgress and blur the binary of masculine/feminine. Instead of penetration, therefore, the masculine transparent, lucid, and homogeneous, not hysteric, gaze is strangely juxtaposed to the vacant, opaque, and heterogeneous gaze of feminine lack
Along with the masculine penetrating gaze, the gaze of the engraver is inscribing and engraving a phallic, self-same discourse into the feminine through the masculine form-creating force:
"His true Penelope
And his tool
The engraver's. (HSM 182)
Mauberley's true Penelope, Flaubert, by his so-called realistic, scientific, and objectifying tools, inscribes his phallic pattern into his sentimental Bovary. Bovarism as Andreas Huyssen argues, although Flaubert says that Bovary is Flaubert himself ("Madame Bovary, c'est moi"), indeed, Bovary, Bovarism is not Flaubert, Madame Bovary, woman. is "positioned as reader of inferior literature—subjective, emotional, and passive" while Flaubert, man, "emerges as writer of genuine, authentic literature—objective, ironic, and in control of his aesthetic means" (46). Bovarism is, in fact, one of the representations of the objectification of a sentimental and feminized culture. Flaubert/Mauberley is, here engraving phallic intervention into the feminized and sentimental culture by the masculine form-creating force, engraver's tool. Mauberley/Flaubert, therefore, as in the form-creating force compelling the ovule into "a given pattern" in Pound's review of Gourmont's book, becomes the man who attempts to make the intaglio as well as the hollow by phallic assertions. In this respect, the direct quotation of Irigaray's remark would be illuminating for these details: "By converting her to a discourse that denies the specificity of her pleasure by inscribing it as the hollow, the intaglio, the negative, even as the censured other of its phallic assertions. By hom(m)osexualizing her" (S 140-1) In this case, her term, hom(m)osexuaIization, rather than the homosexual itself, means the male specular economy of the self-same from which woman is excluded, unmarked, and signifies nothing. This male economy of the self-same, hom(m)osexual, based on the narcissistic reflection, accordingly, just produces the same and auto-copies, the male economy of the hom(m)osexual is no more than a mimetic version of the male of "Immaculate Conception".
But there still remains the heterogeneous and disjunctive indeterminacy despite Mauberley's vain efforts to resuscitate the patriarchal, homogeneous, and self-same culture:
A conscious disjunct,
Being but this overblotted
Of intermittences; (HSM 186)
And this indeterminacy is located in Mauberley/Pounds unconsciousness, which is heterogeneously, excessively presenting the epiphany of sexuality the body.
Body Is Fluid
That the body is inside the soul—
the lifting and folding brightness
the darkness shattered,
the fragment. (113 788-9)
Several critics have pointed out Pound's hierarchical sexual dualism, while his sexual dualism itself seems contradictory Suggesting modernist aesthetics as the persistent hierarchical sexual dualism; D. B. Jones defines "that archetypal modernist." Pound's poetry and poetics as contaminated by an offensive sexist metaphysics (172) Indicating Pound's sexual politics as hierarchical, Michael André Bernstein says, in The Cantos, color, polysemy, and sexuality are "seen as vital components of a full human realization—but only as long as they are bounded and made serviceable by the shaping, linear, and phallic male order" (358). Pointing out Pound's contradictory notions of the feminine, Barbara Will also notes that Pound persistently situates the feminine as a diminished or weaker version of the masculine, however, what is important in Will's argument is that Pound has appropriated "the mysterious feminine essence' which metamorphoses the male poet into a resonant, transhistorical soundpiece (142).
While some Pound critics point out Pound's hierarchical sexual dualism. Pounds appropriation of the fluidities has also been observed by several Pound scholars first, Ronald Bush points out, "Pound took Upward's universe of fluid force and made his own interpretation of the way man's swirl outward interpenetrates nature" (Genesis 99) For Pound, the consciousness is "germinal" (SR 92). As the "germinal" is reminiscent of Gourmont's spermatozoid brain, in fact, Pound seems to appropriate the fluidities on account of his translation of Gourmont's book. Noting Pound's fluidities as coming from Gourmont, Leslie Heywood also observes, "fluidity is for Pound a positive quality. . . . so in this sense the feminine is not necessarily negative" (95) While, for Pound, the chaotic fluidities are not negative, the fluid is still giving primacy to the sperm fluid in his review of the translation of Gourmont's book.
More importantly, Kevin Oderman says. Pound’s allusion to electricity and sexuality is described terms of fluidity (31); in his endnote, Oderman observes that in Pound's thought the "radiant world" and the world of "fluid force" seem to be synonymous (140 n. 10). Emphasizing the liquidity and fluidity of Pound in his poetic medium, Oderman reveals that Pound's radiant or light philosophy is coexistent with fluidity. In the Pisan Cantos, Oderman points out that the glaukopis "which Upward is glossing is an adjective applied to the eyes of 'the goddess Athene,'" and these eyes are the intermittent nature of Pound's vision because glaukopis "that which gleams and then does not gleam" (127-8). As Will notes, after all. Pound's female goddess, Athene, seems to be "the very embodiment of a specifically feminine virtu." (142)
Noting Canto 29's lines, "She is submarine, she is octopus, she is / A biological process," Will argues this process as osmosis. Will writes
It is the wave pattern cut in the stone which gives Pound hope in the etched clarity of its fluid lines it signifies an aesthetic, democratic union between binary differences: hard, eternal. towering, masculine stone joined with fluid, shifting, feminine writing For Pound to experience this epiphany, he must reveal his own feminine "essence" as the source of osmosis "Sea weed dried now, and now floated, / mind drifts, weed, slow youth, drifts “Nel ventre tuo, o nella mente mia . . . " At this moment, the speaker appropriates a female productivity as his own, womb becomes mind, and a multiplicity of voices form past generations "fills" the empty space of the text. (141. Will's ellipses)
The process of osmosis is that of gendering from the masculine to feminine. Pound's appropriation of the feminine "essence" gives him female productivity, in which Pound can have H.D.'s womb-mind, "vision of the womb," not the spermatozoid brain, and the multiple, shifting, and fluid voices, not the masculine gaze. This female productivity functions as supplementary to the phallic, dead father's empty space of the text, for the feminine gives the mind and voice from the process of osmosis.
Pound's gender dynamics, as I have discussed, is recording the bordering area between the feminine and the masculine. While Pound persistently denigrates the feminine and pursues the phallic hardness, in his poetic writing, he apparently indicates his appropriation of the feminine fluidities. This ambivalence of Pound's gender issues will be discussed in the fourth chapter, "The Economic of Metamorphic Fluidities."
* Geun Young Jang; Fluidities of Gender in Ezra Pound, (A Dissertation), Texas Tech University, May, 1999, pp. 74-91.
 I'm now using the term "phallic" with "omnipotent preoedipal." Rather, the preoedipal means the semiotic or the imaginary, not the phallic. In this case, I think, as Gallop argues, my use of the term "phallic" may indicate that "to speak of a phallic mother' is to subsume female experience into male categories" (117). Though Gallop's tone is quite critical, it is true that the Phallus seems to signifying an authority \'et, while a feminist argues the "phallic mother" as a fraud, this phallic mother's supposed omniscience and omnipotence may compare to the preoedipal mother' power over life and death (Gallop 117).
 Defining the gaze as the masculine, Ofelia Schutte points out that, by the masculine gaze, Irigaray presents the status of fefishized femininity (66).
 According to Peter Brooker, in "Yeux Glauques," the subtitle of this poem, the French word, "Glauque" means "glaucous," dull bluish-green or grey in English (201) I think, this color of dull bluish-green or grey is signifying the feminine, disruptive, opaque gaze as opposed to the masculine penetrating, transparent, lucid one. Referring to Upward's study, Pound says, "Glaux, owl, totem or symbolic bird (gods connected with the divine animals, as stupid bitch Hera has bull eyes), glare-eyed, owl-eyed Athena" (cited in Berryman 115). For Berryman, "Yeux Glauques" refers to the duality, "the characteristic of glittering—of alternating—of being one thing and then another" "It is this quality of changeability, or duality, that is significant for Pound—that characterizes his goddess" (115). Berryman writes: "When Mauberley refers to 'Yeux Glauques,' he alludes to the cliché, to the decorative and ornamental style associated with the Pre- Raphaelite and the nineties in France. But for Pound, the term can suggest the quality of immediate and sudden change—the characteristic that links it with the goddess who, like a Circe, the Cyprian, 'Jenny,' or Athene, can instantly metamorphose from one form to another. From goddess of love to whore, from divine to damned, goddesses with 'Yeux Glauques' share an ambivalent nature "(116).
 Oderman notes that, in terms of Plotinus, Pound "describes this luminous envelope which he sees surrounding the body" (119).
 Will argues that Pound appropriates the feminine essence, but she is questioning of what is the relation between various women in Pound's text. For example, there are Pernella and Cunizza in Canto 29 who represent the bad and the good women respectively (141-2).
 For Pound, the universe is fluid: "We have about us the universe of fluid force, and below us the germinal universe of wood alive, of stone alive Man is—the sensitive physical part of him—a mechanism, for the purpose of our further discussion a mechanism rather like an electric appliance, switches, wires, etc. As to his consciousness, the consciousness of some seems to rest, or to have its center more properly, in what the Greek psychologists called phantastikon. Their minds are, that is, circumvolved about them like soap bubbles reflecting sundry patches of the macrocosmos. And with certain others their consciousness is 'germinal.' Their thoughts are in them as the thought of the tree is in the seed, or in the grass, or the grain, or the blossom. And these minds are the more poetic, and they affect mind about them, and transmute it as the seed the earth. And this latter sort of mind is close on the vital universe; and the strength of the Greek beauty rests in this, that it is ever at the interpretation of this vital universe, by its signs of gods and godly attendants and oreads" (SR 92-3).
- Adorno, T. W. Aesthetic Theory. Trans. C. Lenhard. Ed Gretel, Adorno and Rolf Tiedemann. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1984.
- Bacigalupo, Massimo. The Later Poetry of Ezra Pound. New York Columbia University Press, 1980.
- Barkan, Leonard. The Gods Made Flesh. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1986.
- Baumann, Walter. "Secretary of Nature, J. Heyden." New Approaches to Ezra Found Ed with an introduction by Eva Hesse. Berkeley University of California Press, 1969, 303-18.
- de Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Trans, and Ed. H M. Parshley New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1983.
- Bell, Ian F. A Critic as Scientist. London: Methuen, 1981.
- Belsey, Catherine and Jane Moore, ed. The Feminist Reader, New York Basil Blackwell, 1993.
- Bennett, Paula. "Critical Clitoridectomy« Signs 18 2 (1993): 235-59.
- Bernstein, Michael Andre. "Image, Word, and Sign" Critical Inquiry 12 (Winter 1986) 347-364.
- Berry, Philippa. "The Burning Glass." Engaging with Irigaray, Ed by Carolyn Burke, Naomi Schor, and Margaret Whitford. New York Columbia University Press, 1994, 229-48.
- Berryman, Jo Brantley. Circe's Craft: Pound's "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1983.
- Boyne, Roy. Foucault and Derrida London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.
- Brooke-Rose, Christine. A ZBC of Ezra Pound, Berkeley University of California Press, 1971.
- Brooker, Peter. A Student's Guide to the Selected Poems of Ezra Pound, London, Faber and Faber, 1979.
- Burke, Carolyn. "Irigaray through the Looking Glass." Feminist Studies 2 (Summer 1981) 288-306.
- Bush, Ronald. Introduction. "Ezra Pound (1885-1972)." The Gender of Modernism. Ed. Bonnie Kime Scot. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1990. 353-359.
- Bush, Ronald. The Genesis of Ezra Pound. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1976.
- Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter New York: Routledge, 1993.
- Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, 1990.
- Butler, Judith. "Sexual Ideology and Phenomenological Description." Allen, Jeffner and Ins Marion Young, ed. The Thinking Muse. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 19S9. 85-100.
- Carpenter, Humphrey. A Serious Character Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1988.
- Casillo, Robert. "The Desert and the Swamp Enlightenment. Orientalism, and the Jews in Ezra Pound." MLQ 45-3 (1984 Sep): 263-86.
- Casillo, Robert. The Genealogy of Demons. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1988.
- Cheadle, Mary Paterson. Ezra Pound's Confucian Translations. Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press, 1997.
- Chen, Xiaomei. "Rediscovering Ezra Pound: A Post-Postcolonial 'Misreading" of a ' Western Legacy." Paideuma 23 2-3 (1994); 81-105.
- Christ, Carol T Victorian and Modern Poetics Chicago The University of Chicago Press, 1984.
- Cixous, Helene and Catherine Clement. The Newly Born Woman. Trans. Betsy Wing and an Introduction by Sandra M Gilbert Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
- Clarke, Bruce. Allegories of Writing. New York: State University of New York Press. 1995.
- Clarke, Bruce. Dora Marsden and Early Modernism Gender, Individualism. Science. Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press, 1996.
- Conrad, Bryce. Refiguring America. Urbana, University of Illinois Press 1990.
- Cookson, William. A Guide to the Cantos of Ezra Pound. London & Sydney Croom Helm, 1985.
- Dasenbrock, Reed Way. The Literary Vorticism of Ezra Pound & Wyndham Lewis Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985.
- Davenport, Guy. Cities on Hills: A Study of I-XXX of Ezra Pound's Cantos Ann Arbor UMI Research Press, 1983.
- Dekker, George. The Cantos of Ezra Pound. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1963.
- Dennis, Helen M. "Pound, Women and Gender." Ed. Ira B. Nadel The Cambridge Companion to Ezra Pound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999, 264-83.
- Derrida, Jacques. "Of Grammatology as a Positive Science" Of Grammatology, Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976, 74-96.
- Dijkstra, Bram. "The Androgyne in Nineteenth-Century Art and Literature" Comparative Literature 26:1 (Winter 1974): 62-73.
- Dijkstra, Bram. Introduction. A Recognizable Image: William Carlos Williams on Art and Artists Ed. Bram Dijkstra. New York: New Directions. 1978, 1-46.
- Donald, Davie. Ezra Pound: Poet as Sculptor New York Oxford University Press, 1964.
- Doolittle, Hilda. End to Torment: A Memoir of Ezra Found by H. D Ed Norman Holmes Pearson and Michael King. New York: A New Directions Book, 1979.
- Doolittle, Hilda. "Notes on Thought and 'Vision," Ed. Bonnie Kime Scot, The Gender of Modernism Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990, 93-109.
- Douglas, Paul. "Modernism and Science: The Case of Pound's ABC of Reading.'' Paideuma 18.1-2 (Spring-Fall 1989): 187-96.
- Driscoll Kerry. William Carlos Williams and the Maternal Muse, Ann Arbor, UMl Research Press, 1987.
- Duplessis, Rachel Blau. "Oppen and Pound," Paideuma 10 1 (1981) 59-83.
- Duplessis, Rachel Blau. The Pink Guitar New York: Routledge, 1990.
- Durant, Alan. Ezra Found Identity in Crisis: 1 Fundamental Reassessment of the Poet and His Work. Totowa, N. J. Barnes and Noble, 1981.
- Ellmann, Maud. The Poetics of Impersonality Cambridge. Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1987.
- Espey, John. Ezra Pound's Mauberley. Berkeley, University of California Press. 1955.
- Felman. Shoshna. "Woman and Madness: the Critical Phallacy." Ed Belsey, Catherine and Jane Moore. The Feminist Reader. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1993. 133-54.
- Fenollosa, Ernest. "The Chinese Written Character as a Medium of for Poetry." Poetics of the New American Poetry. Ed. Donald M. Allen and Warren, Tallman New York: Grove Press, 1973, 13-35.
- Ferguson, Moria, and Janet Todd. "Feminist Backgrounds and Arguments of a Vindication of the Rights of Women.” Wollstonecraft 317-28.
- Fink, Bruce. The Lacanian Subject. Princeton, New Jersey Princeton University Press, 1995.
- Firestone, Shulamith. The Dialectic of Sex. New York: William Morrow and Company. Inc., 1970.
- Flory, Wendy Stallard. The American Ezra Pound. New Haven Yale University Press, 1989.
- Flory, Wendy Stallard. Ezra Pound and "The Cantos": A Record of Struggle. New Haven Yale University Press, 1980.
- Flory, Wendy Stallard. "Pound and Antisemitism." The Cambridge Companion to Ezra Found Id Ira B Nadel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Vol.1 Trans Robert Hurley, New York Vintage Books, 1990. 3 vols.
- Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization. Trans. Richard Howard, New York, Vintage Books, 1988.
- von Franz, Marie-Louis. A Psychological Interpretation of the Golden Ass of Apuleius Irving, Texas: University of Dallas.
- French, A. L "'Olympian Apathein' Pound's Hugh Selwyn Mauberley And Modern Poetry" Essays m Criticism XV (October 1965) 428-445.
- Freud, Sigmund Totem and Taboo. Trans. James Strachey New York, WW Norton & Company Inc., 1950.
- Fuller, Margaret. Woman in the Nineteenth Century and Other Writings. Ed. Donna Dickenson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
- Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method. Trans. Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G Marshall. New York: Continuum, 1993.
- Gallop, Jane. The Daughter's Seduction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1982.
- Gibson, Mary Ellis. Epic Reinvented. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1996.
- Gibson, Mary Ellis. History and the Prism of Art. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1987.
- Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic. New Haven \ale University Press, 1979.
- Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. No Man's Land. 3 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
- Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. "Sexual Linguistics: Gender, Language, and Sexuality," Belsey and Moore, eds., 81-100.
- Goldblatt, Eli. "Gender Matters in Pound's Cantos," Journal of Modern Literature XV (Summer 1988), 35-53.
- Goldenberg, Naomi R. Returning Words to Flesh. Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.
- Goldensohn, Barry. "Pound and Antisemitism." The Yale Review 75 (Spring 1986) 399-421.
- de Gourmont, Remy. The Natural Philosophy of Love Trans Ezra Pound. New York, Liveright Inc., 1932.
- Goux, Jean-Joseph. Symbolic Economies. Trans, Jennifer Curtiss, Gage Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.
- Grieve, Thomas F. Ezra Pound's Early Poetry and Poetics Columbia University Missouri Press, 1997.
- Grieve, Thomas F. "Pound's Other Homage: Hugh Selwyn Mauberley« Paideuma 27 1 (Spring 199S) 9-30.
- Haraway, Donna. "A Cyborg Manifesto" Contemporary Literary Criticism Id Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleifer, Third edition, New York Longman. 1994, 566-608.
- Haraway, Donna. Modest Witness. New York, Routledge, 1997.
- Hatcher, Leslie. "Circe's This Craft: The Active Female Principle in The Cantos" Paideuma 24 (Spring 1995): 83-94.
- Heath, Stephen. "The Sexual Fix." Feminist Literary Theory. Second edition Ed. Mary Eagleton. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1996. 311-6.
- Heckman, Susan J. Gender and Knowledge. Boston: Northeastern University Press. 1990.
- Heilbrun, Carolyn. Toward a Recognition of Androgyny New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1973.
- Heywood, Leslie. Dedication to Hunger: The Anorexic Aesthetic in Modern Culture Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
- Hirsh, Elizabeth. "Imagery Images." Discontented Discourses Ed. Marleen S. Bart and Richard Feldstein. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989, 141-59.
- Hollywood, Amy M. "Beauvoir, Irigaray, and the Mystical." Hypatia 9 4 (Fall 1994) 158-85.
- Huyssen, Andreas. After the Great Divide. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- Irigaray, Luce. An Ethics of Sexual Difference. Trans Carolyn Burke and Gillian C Gill Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1993.
- Irigaray, Luce. "Is the Subject of Science Sexed." Cultural Critique 1 (Fall 1985) 73-88.
- Irigaray, Luce. Sexes and Genealogies. Trans. Gillian C. Gill, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
- Irigaray, Luce. Speculum of the Other Woman. Trans. Gillian C Gill Ithaca, New York Cornell University Press, 1985.
- Irigaray, Luce. Thinking the Difference: For a Peaceful Revolution. Trans. Karin Montin, New York Routledge, 1994.
- Irigaray, Luce. This Sex Which Is Not One. Trans. Catherine Porter Ithaca, New York Cornell University Press, 1985.
- Jacobus, Mary. "The Difference of View," Belsey and Moore, eds. 49-62.
- Jameson, Fredric, "Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture." Social text I (1979) 130-48.
- Jones, D. B. "Ezra Pound and Cosmic Male Principle" LIT I 3, 171-82.
- Kayman, Martin. "A Model for Pound's Use of Science." Ed, Ian F A Bell, Ezra Pound: Tactics for Reading. London: Vision Press Ltd. 1982, 79-102.
- Kayman, Martin. The Modernism of Ezra Pound: The Science of Poetry London: The MacmiIIan Press Ltd., 1986.
- Keller, Evelyn Fox. Reflections on Gender and Science. New Haven Yale University Press, 1985.
- Kenner, Hugh. "Broken Mirrors and the Mirror of Memory." Ed. Lewis Leary Motive and Method in the Cantos of Ezra Pound. New York: Columbia University Press. 1954.
- Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1971.
- Kern, Robert. Orientalism, Modernism, and the American Poem, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
- Kern, Stephen. The Culture of Time and Space 1880-1918. Cambridge. Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1983.
- Korn, Marianne. Ezra Pound: Purpose Form Meaning London: Middlesex Polytechnic Press, 1983.
- Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror. Trans. Leon S, Roudiez, New York Columbia University Press, 1982.
- Kristeva, Julia. Revolution in Poetic Language. Trans. Margaret Waller with an Introduction by Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.
- Kristeva, Julia. "Stabat Mater." Ed. Toril Moi, The Kristeva Reader New York Columbia University Press, 1986, 160-86.
- Lacan, Jaques. Ecrits. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York W W Norton & Company Inc., 1977.
- Lacan, Jaques. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: W W Norton & Company, 1981.
- Lacan, Jaques. ''God and the Jouissance of Woman" Femmne Sexuality. Eds. Juliet Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1982, 137-148.
- Langbaum, Robert. The Poetry of the Experience. London Chatto & Windus. 1957.
- Laplanch, Jean, and J.-B. Pontalis. Trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith. The Language or Psycho-Analysis. London: W.W. Norton & Company. 1973.
- Levenson, Joseph R. and Franz Schurmann. China: An Interpretive History, Berkeley University of California Press, 1969.
- Levenson, Michael H. A Genealogy of Modernism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
- Lewis, Wyndham, ed. Blast I. Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press, 1992.
- Lewis, Wyndham. Blasting & Bombardiering. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
- Lewis, Wyndham. "The Rock Drill.” Ezra Pound—Perspectives. Ed. Noel Stock Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1965, 198-201.
- Lewis, Wyndham. Rude Assignment. London: Hutchinson & Co, Ltd, 1950.
- Lindberg, Kathryne V. Reading Pound Reading. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
- Liu, James J. Y. Chinese Theories of Literature. Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, 1975.
- Lorraine, Tamsin E. Gender, Identity, and the Production of Meaning Boulder Westview Press, 1990.
- Lovell. Terry. "Writing Like a Woman: A Question of Politics" Ed Mary Eagleton Feminist Literary Theory. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc, 1994, 118-120.
- Maccoby, Hyam. "The Jew as Anti-Artist: The Anti-Semitism of Ezra Pound« Midstream (March 1916): 59-71.
- Marx, Karl. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy Trans N 1 Stone New York: The International Library Publishing Co, 1904.
- Materer, Timothy. Vortex: Pound, Eliot, and Lewis Ithaca Cornell University Press. 1979.
- Merleau-Ponty, M. Phenomenology of Perception Trans Colin Smith, London Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962.
- Miner, Earl. The Japanese Tradition m British and American literature Princeton, New Jersey Princeton University Press, 1958.
- Moi, Toril. Sexual/Textual Politics. London: Methuen, 1985.
- el Moncef, Salah. "Gold, Representation, and the Reversible Dynamic of Symptomatic Return in Ezra Pound." Boundary 2 22:1, 1995, 117-142.
- Murfin, Ross C. The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms. Boston Bedford Books, 1997.
- Murray, David. "Pound-signs: Money and Representation in Ezra Pound" Ed Ian F Bell. Ezra Pound. London: Vision Press Ltd., 1982.
- Nicholls, Peter. Ezra Pound: Politics, Economics, and Writing. London The Macmillan Press ltd., 1984.
- Nicholls, Peter. Modernisms. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
- Oderman, Kevin. Ezra Pound and the Erotic Medium Durham Duke University Press, 1986.
- Oliver, Kelly. Womanizing Nietzsche. New York: Routledge, 1995.
- Parker, Andrew. "Ezra Pound and The 'Economy' of Anti-Semitism" Boundary 2 XI 1- 2 (Fall Winter 1982/83): 103-28.
- Peckam, Morse. "Historiography and The Ring and Book,” Victorian Poetry 86 (1968) 243-57.
- Pound, Ezra. ABC of Reading. New York: The New Classics, 1934.
- Pound, Ezra. The Cantos. London: Faber and Faber, 1975.
- Pound, Ezra. Collected Early Poems of Ezra Pound. Ed. Michael John King with an Introduction by Louis L. Martz. New York, A New Directions Book, 1976.
- Pound, Ezra. Confucius: The Great Digest & Unwobbling Pivot New York, New Directions Book, 1951.
- Pound, Ezra. "Doggerel Section of Letter to Marianne Moore" Scot, 362-5.
- Pound, Ezra. 'Ezra Pound Speaking": Radio Speeches of World War II, Ed. Leonard W Doob, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1978.
- Pound, Ezra. Gaudier-Brzeska. New York: A New Directions Book, 1960.
- Pound, Ezra. Guide to Kulchur. London: Peter Owen, 1938, 1966.
- Pound, Ezra. "The Hard and the Soft in French Poetry," Poetry XI (Feb, 1918) 264-71.
- Pound, Ezra. Hugh Selwyn Mauberley. Ed. T. S. Eliot. Selected Poems, 173-87.
- Pound, Ezra. Jefferson and/or Mussolini. New York Liveright, 1935, 1936.
- Pound, Ezra. The Letters of Ezra Pound 1907-1941 Ed. D. D. Paige. New York Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1950.
- Pound, Ezra. "Letters to Viola Baxter Jordan" Ed. Donald Gallop, Paideuma 1 (1972) 107-111.
- Pound, Ezra. Literary Essays of Ezra Pound. Ed. T. S. Eliot New York, A New Directions Book, 1954.
- Pound, Ezra. Lustra. New York: Haskell House Publishers Ltd., 1916, 1973.
- Pound, Ezra. Selected Poems. Ed. with an Introduction by T S Eliot London, Faber and Faber, 1928.
- Pound, Ezra. The Spirit of Romance. New York: A New Directions Book, 1929.
- Pound, Ezra. "Suffragettes." 367-71. Ed. Bonnie Kime Scott, The Gender of Modernism Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
- Pound, Ezra. "Translator's Postscript." Gourmont, Remy de The Natural Philosophy of Love New York: Liveright Inc., 1932, 295-311.
- Praz, Mario. Trans. Angus Davidson. The Romantic Agony. London, Oxford University Press, 1951.
- Qian, Zhaoming. Orientalism and Modernism Durham Duke University Press, 1995.
- Rabate, Jean-Michel. Language, Sexuality, and Ideology in Ezra Pound's Cantos." London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1986.
- Ragland-Sullivan, Ellie. "The Sexual Masquerade, A Lacanian theory of Sexual Difference," Ed. Ellie Ragland-Sullivan and Mark Bracher, Lacan and the Subject of Language, New York, Routledge, 1991, 49-80.
- Redman, Tim. Ezra Pound and Italian Fascism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- Riviere, Joan. "Womanliness as a Masquerade." 1929 Formations of Fantasy, Eds. Victor Burgin, James Donalds, and Cora Kaplan. New York: Methuen. 1986, 35-44.
- Robinson, Alan. Symbol to Vortex: Poetry, Painting and Ideas, 1885-1914. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1985.
- Ruthven, K. K. A Guide to Ezra Pound's Personae. Berkeley University of California Press, 1969.
- Schmidt, Peter. "Introduction to Williams' 'Letter to an Australian Editor' (1946) Williams' Manifesto for Multiculturalism." William Carlos Williams Review 17 2 (Fall 1991): 4-7.
- Schneidau, Herbert N. Ezra Pound: The Image and the Real. Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press, 1969.
- Schutte, Ofelia. "Irigaray on the Problem of Subjectivity" Hypatia 6 2 (Summer 1991) 64-76.
- Scott, Bonnie Kime., ed. The Gender of Modernism Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1990.
- Selden, Raman and Peter Widdowson. A Reader's Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory. Third edition. Lexington, Kentucky The University Press of Kentucky, 1993.
- Sieburth, Richard. Instigations. Cambridge, Massachusetts Harvard University Press, 1978.
- Slipp, Samual. The Freudian Mystique. New York New York University Press, 1993.
- Smith, Paul. Pound Revised. London: Croom Helm, 1983.
- Smith, Stan. The Origins of Modernism: Eliot, Pound, and the Rhetoric (f Renewal New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994.
- Stock, Noel. The Life of Ezra Pound Expanded ed. San Francisco North Point Press. 1982.
- Stoekl, Allan. Agonies of the Intellectual. Lincoln University of Nebraska Press. 1992.
- Surette, Leon A Light from Eleusis. Oxford Clarendon Press, 1979.
- Terrell, Carroll F. A Companion to the Cantos of Ezra Pound. Berkeley University of California Press, 1980.
- Tiffany, Daniel. Radio Corpse: Imagism and The Cryptaesthetic of Ezra Pound. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
- Trinh, T. Minh-ha. Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
- Weedon, Chris. Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1987.
- Wees, William C. Vorticism and the English Avant-Garde. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1972.
- Wilhelm, James J. Ezra Pound in London and Pans (1908-1925), University Park, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
- Wilhelm, James J. The Later Cantos of Ezra Poimd. New York Walker and Company, 1977.
- Will, Barbara. "Pound's Feminine Other" Paideuma 19 (1990 Winter) 130-42.
- Williams, Carlos William. "Letter to an Australian Editor." William Carlos Williams Review 17.2 (Fall 1991): 8-12.
- Wilson, Peter. A Preface to Ezra Pound London: Longman, 1997.
- Witemeyer, Hugh. The Poetry of Ezra Pound: Forms and Renewals, 1908-1920 Berkeley University of California Press, 1969.
- Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Right of Woman, Second edition, Ed. Carol H. Poston. New York: W W Norton & Company, 1988.
- Woolf, Virginia. "Mary Wollstonecraft," Wollstonecraft 267-272.
- Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929. 1910.
- Yip, Wai-lim, Ezra Pound's Cathay Princeton, New Jersey Princeton University Press. 1969.
- Zach, Natan, "Imagism and Vorticism." Modernism 1890-1930. Ed. Malcolm Bradbury and James McFarlane, New York, Penguin Books. 1976, 228-42.
- Žižek, Slavoj, The Sublime Object of Ideology, London, Verso, 1989.